Jalandhar is located on the intensively irrigated plain between the Beas and Sutlej rivers. The city, which has major road and rail connections, is a market for agricultural products. Manufactures include textiles, leather goods, wood products, and sporting goods. Jalandhar was the capital of Punjab from India's independence (1947) until Chandigarh was built in 1953.Jalandhar is situated at 710 31’ East and 300 33’ North at a distance of 146 kms from state capital Chandigarh.
In ancient time, the district or Kingdom of Jalandhar comprised the whole of the Upper Doabas from the Ravi to the Satluj. According to the Padama Purana, as quoted by General Conningham the country takes its name from the great Daitya King Danava Jalandhara the son of the Ganga by Ocean.
Outside the Nakodar town, there are two fine Muhammedan tombs situated close together. These are maintained as protected monuments by the Archaeological Departments. One of these tombs was built in A.D.1612 in the beginning of the reign of Jahangir(A..D.1605-1627 A.D.) and the other in 1657 A.D towards the close of the reign of Shah Jahan (1627-1658 A.D.).
The Tomb of Mohammed Momin was erected over the mortal remains of Ustad Muhammed Momin also known as Ustad Ustad Muhammed Husseini alias Hafizak, a tambura player in the service of Khan-I-Khanan, one of the Mavaratnas in the court of Emperor Akbar in AD 1021 (AD 1612). Standing on an octagonal platform and approached by a flight of steps on two sides, it is square from inside and octagonal on outside.
Tomb of Haji JamalNakodar Tomb is close to the tomb of Muhammed Momin. This tomb was raised over the mortal remains of Haji Jamal, a pupil of Ustad Muhammed Husseini, the tambura player, towards the close of Emperor Shah Jahan's regin.
Dakhni sarai is one of the finest and best preserved specimens of mughal caravan sarais built along the old highway. It stand in the village Dakhni (31.10' N; 75.25' E) on the Nakodar- Kapurthala road, about 12 km from Nakodar. The sarai is said to have been built by the well known Mughal noble Ali Mardan Khan during the reign of Mughal emperor Shah Jahan about AD 1640.
The Mughal Bridge is to the south of the village Mahlian Kalan on Nakodar- Kapurthala road, obout 12 km from Nakodar. This is one of the extant Mughal bridge built during the reign of Shah Jahan (AD 1627-1658 ) . The bridge spanned the Dhauli-veni river to the east of the Dakhni Sarai.
Nurmahal Mahal is due to the fostering of Nur Jahan (after whom it is named), the consort of Emperor Jahangir(1605-1627 A.D) and who is said to have been brought up here. She had the imperial serai constructed by Nawab Zakariya Khan Governor of the Doab between 1619 and 1621 A.D and settled numerous families in her new town. In 1738-1739 Nadir Shah exacted a ransom of three lakhs of rupees" from Nurmahal, which seriously injured its prosperity.
Ancient site ( Theh Ghatti), Nagar (Jalandhar) : The village Nagar ( 31" 05' N, 77" 50'E) is situated about 9 km north-east of phillaur with a threefold sequence of culture. Period 1 is represented by the painted Grey ware with sprinkling of the late Harappa sturdy red ware. Semi-circular huts and two ovel structures of burnt earth, probably of religious nature, have been noticed.
Ancient site, Katpalon (Jalandhar):The ancient site in the village Katpalon (31' 05' N; 75' 52' E) about 7 km east of phillaur and it was excavated by the survey in 1976-77. In period I the painted Grey ware was found interlocked with the late Harappan pottery.
Places to Visit in Jalandhar
Rangla Punjab Haveli : Rangla Punjab is the true representation of an age-old Punjabi Village. Once you enter the place you will be transported back in time to experience the grandeur yet simplicity of bygone times. It's very easy to reach Haveli. The theme based restaurant is located at GT Road, Jalandhar-Phagwara Highway at Jalandhar.
Devi Talab Mandir Temple : The famous Devi Talab Temple is situated in the heart of Jalandhar city, just 1 km from the railway station. It is believed to be more than 200 years old. The temple is dedicated to Goddess Durga and is one of the 51 Shakthi pithas in India. The image of Lord Shiva that is enshrined herein is called Bhisan Bhairav. Devi Talab Temple has been renovated recently and a number of changes have been made to the old structure. Also, a new temple has been constructed within the temple premises. Even a model of Amarnath Yatra was constructed sometime back only.
Pushpa Gujral Science City : The biggest project of its kind in Northern India, the Science City has been set up in 72 acres of land in the of heart of Punjab, on Jalandhar- Kapurthala Road. It is intended to inclucate the scientific aptitude & temperament, to fire the imagination and creativity, foster the spirit of enquiry and exploration among the masses, especially in the young minds.
Wonderland Theme Park : Wonderland Amusement Park is situated in the heart of Doaba region Jalandhar, which is just 8 km from bus stand which is the one the best place for enjoyment for one day outing for the entire family with thrilling rides, water games and many more.
Shaheed-E-Azam Museum :Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum has been constructed to pay homage to the great revolutionary martyrs of the Punjab, who laid down their lives for the liberation of their motherland. The museum was inaugurated on the 50th martyrdom anniversary of the great Martyr Sardar Bhagat Singh. Situated about 55 kilometers from Jalandhar, at Khatkar Kalan, on Nawanshahar-Banga road, the museum displays the memorable belongings of the revolutionary martyrs of the Punjab. The half burnt ashes of Sardar Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev including the blood soaked sand and blood stained newspaper in which their ashes were wrapped are preserved and exhibited here.
Kartarpur Gurudwara : Kartarpur Gurdwara in Jalandhar district is a famous Gurudwara constructed in 1656 A.D by the Fifth Sikh Guru, Guru Arjun Devji. The small town of Kartarpur is situated 16 km from Jalandhar. The birth anniversary the Fifth Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Arjun Devji is celebrated every year with lot of grandeur. During the fair, huge numbers of people from all over the country come here to pay homage to the Guru and get his blessings.
St mary's cathedral church : St. Mary's Cathedral Church is one of the famous religious as well as tourist places in Jalandhar. The Old Church was constructed by Rev. Fr. John Macodnnel in 1947, in the memory of St. Patrick. In 1955, the Catholic Mission of the Indian Punjab was raised to the status of Apostolic Prefecture, with its headquarter at Jalandhar. The church in the city subsequently became the Cathedral or the Mother Church of Punjab.
Sodal Mandir : One of the ancient temples of Punjab, the "Sodal Mandir, Jalandhar City" represents the cross cultural tempo of Punjab. The Sodal Mandir of the Jalandhar city attracts many devotees of different religion to worship and seek divine blessings for eternal happiness. The "Sodal Mandir" is dedicated to a child God who was believed to possess supernatural and divine powers. The Sodal Mandir is a living witness to the secular belief of the people of Punjab.
Total Area and Population of the District
According to 2001 Census provisional, the area of Jalandhar District is 3,401 sq. km According to 2001 Census provisional figures, the total population of the district was 19,53,508 persons (10,26,535 males and 9,26,973 Females).
The climate of this district is on the whole dry except during the brief south-west monsoon season. The year may be divided into four seasons. The cold season is from the middle of November to early part of March. The succeeding period upto the end of June in the summer season, July, August and first half of September constitute the South-West monsoon season. The period from middle September to the middle of November is the post monsoon or transition period. Although tehsil Phagwara is in the Kapurthala District, for the description of climate the same has been included in the Jalandhar district.
Cities and Towns
- Jalandhar Cantt
Sports Goods Industry
Jalandhar acquired importance during the Mughal period. Twelve Muslim bastis (clusters of houses) came into existence including Basti Danishmanda, Basti Guzan and Basti Nau, which are now dominant centres of the sports goods industry. Basti Nau has one of the biggest sports goods markets as well. Jalandhar ranks second in India in the rate of urbanisation and has the highest density of population at 598 persons per square km, as per the 1991 census
- Kanya Maha Vidyalaya, Jalandhar It was established as a school for girls by Local Arya Smaj in 1886 and named as Kanya Maha Vidyalaya in 1896.
- Lyallpur Khalsa College, Jalandhar Established in 1908 as an intermediate college at Lyallpur (Pakistan), it was raised to a degree college in 1940.
- Hans Raj Mahila Maha Vidyalaya Jalandhar The college came into existence in 1927 at Lahore (Pakistan) and revived at Jalandhar in 1948 after partition of the country.
- Doaba College, Jalandhar The college came into existence on 2 June 1941.
- D.A.V College JalandharThe college came into existence in 1918.
- Layallpur Khalsa College for Women, Jalandhar The college was originally started as a girls section on Layallpur Khalsa College in 1958 and was shifted to its new premises in 1960.
- Government Arts & Sports College, Jalandhar Originally the college came into existence in 1961 in the name of State College of Sports.
- University College, Jalandhar The college was started by Punjab University in 1962.
- Banarsi Dass Arya Girls College, Jalandhar Cantonment The college came into existence in 1964.
- Government Collage of Education, Jalandhar The collage was established in 1947.
A brief description regarding Government as well as privately managed hospitals functioning in District is given below:
- Shaheed Babu Labh Singh Civil Hospital, Jalandhar
- Mobile Eye Hospital, Jalandhar
- Civil Hospital, Nakodar
- Civil Hospital Phillaur
- Civil Hospital, Nurmahal
- E.S.I. Hospital, Jalandhar
- Cantonment General Hospital, Jalandhar Cantonment
- Gulab Devi Hospital, Jalandhar
- Devi Talab Mandir
- Tulsi Mandir
- Shiv Mandir
- Pushpa Gujral Science City
- Gurdwara Chhevin Padshahi
- Shaheed-E-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum
- St Mary’s Cathedral Church( Jalandhar Cantt)